Background: Defending the Nation’s Critical Infrastructure from Cyber Attacks
In the UK, HM Government’s ‘Cyber Incident Response Scheme’ is closely aligned with intent and purpose to the forthcoming US Cyber Threat Sharing Bill. The driver for both mandates is that, in order to defend against truly targeted, stealthy cyber attacks (APTs, if you like), there will need to be a much greater level of awareness and collaboration. This becomes a government issue when the nation’s critical infrastructures (defense, air traffic control, health service, power and gas utilities etc.) are concerned. Stuxnet proved that cyber attacks against critical national infrastructure can succeed and there isn’t a government anywhere in the world who doesn’t have concerns that they could be next.
The issues are clear: a breach could happen, despite best efforts to prevent it. But in the event that a security breach is discovered, identifying the nature of the threat and then properly communicating this to others at risk is time-critical. The damage may already be done at one facility but heading it off before it affects other locations becomes the new priority: the impact of the breach can be isolated if swift and effective mitigating actions can be taken at other organizations subject to the same cyber threat.
As it stands, the US appears to be going further, legislating regulation via the Cyberthreat Sharing Bill. The UK Government have created the Cyber Incident Response Scheme but without this being a legislated and regulated requirement it may be suffering from slow adoption. Why wouldn’t the UK do likewise if they are taking national cyber security as seriously?
Prevention Better Than Cure?
One other observation, based on experience with other ‘top down’ mandated security standards such as PCI-DSS, is that there is a temptation for the authorities to prioritize specific security best practices over others. Being able to give an ‘If you only do one thing for security, it’s this…’ message gets things moving in the right direction, however, it is can also lead to a false sense of security amongst the community, that the mandated steps have been taken and so the organization is now ‘secure’.
In the case of the UK initiative, the collaboration with CREST is sound in that it provides a degree of ‘quality control’ over the resources recommended for usage. However, the concern is that the emphasis of the CREST scheme may be biased too heavily towards penetration testing. Whilst this is a good, basic security practice, pen testing is either too infrequent or too automated (and therefore breeds complacency). Better than doing nothing? Absolutely – but the program should not be stopped there.
A truly secure environment is one where all security best practices are understood and embedded within the organization and operated constantly. Likewise, vulnerability monitoring and system integrity should be a non-stop process, not a quarterly or ad hoc pen test. Real-time file integrity monitoring, continuously assessing devices for compliance with a hardened build standard and identifying all system changes is the only way to truly guarantee security.